Measurement of cardiovascular and pulmonary function endpoints and other physiological effects following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers
Acute changes in select physiological parameters associated with cardiovascular physiology (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)), pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and exhaled CO and NO) and adverse events were measured in 105 clinically confined subjects who were randomized into groups that either completely or partially switched from conventional cigarettes to e-cigarettes or completely discontinued using tobacco and nicotine products altogether. Use of the e-cigarettes for five days under the various study conditions did not lead to higher BP or HR values, negative respiratory health outcomes or serious adverse health events. Reductions in BP and HR vital signs were observed in most of the participants that either ceased tobacco and nicotine products use altogether or switched completely to using e-cigarettes. Pulmonary function tests showed small but non-statistically significant improvements in FVC and FEV1 measurements in most use groups. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) benefits associated with smoking reduction were also noted in exhaled CO and NO levels. All study products were well tolerated. The study findings suggest that there are potential cardiovascular and pulmonary function benefits when smokers switch to using e-cigarette products. This further reinforces the potential that e-cigarettes offer smokers seeking an alternative to conventional tobacco products.