In the present study, the pathogenesis of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and the immune gene expression patterns associated with this viral infection were determined in the flatfish Senegalese sole. The results indicate that LCDV spreads rapidly from the peritoneal cavity through the bloodstream to reach target organs such as kidney, gut, liver, and skin/fin. The viral load was highest in kidney and reduced progressively thorough the experiment in spite of the viral major capsid protein gene was transcribed. The LCDV injection activated a similar set of differentially expressed transcripts in kidney and intestine although with some differences in the intensity and time-course response. This set included antiviral-related transcripts (including the mx and interferon-related factors irf1, irf2, irf3, irf7, irf8, irf9, irf10), cytokines (il1b, il6, il8, il12 and tnfa) and their receptors (il1r, il8r, il10r, il15ra, il17r), chemokines (CXC-type, CC-type and IL-8), prostaglandins (cox-2), g-type lysozymes, hepcidin, complement fractions (c2, c4-1 and c4-2) and the antigen differentiation factors cd4, cd8a, and cd8b. The expression profile observed indicated that the host triggered a systemic defensive response including inflammation able to cope with the viral challenge.