Prevalence and risk factors associated with STIs among women initiating contraceptive implants in Kingston, Jamaica

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Abstract

Background

There is limited information on rates of STIs in Jamaica due to syndromic management and limited aetiological surveillance. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and characteristics associated with STIs among sexually active women who participated in a randomised trial of a progestin implant initiation in Jamaica (the Sino-Implant Study (SIS)).

Methods

SIS was a randomised trial conducted in Kingston, Jamaica, from 2012 to 2014 to evaluate whether initiation of the Sino-Implant (II) led to more unprotected sex among women ages 18–44 years. Data collected included self-reported demographic, sexual behaviour information; and vaginal swabs collected at baseline, 1-month and 3-month follow-up visits for a biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA)) and for STIs. We examined associations between STIs and PSA, demographics, sexual behaviour and insertion of an implant, with a repeated-measures analysis using generalised estimating equations (SAS Institute, V.9.3).

Results

Remnant vaginal swabs from 254 of 414 study participants were tested for STIs. At baseline, 29% of participants tested for STIs (n=247) had laboratory-confirmed CT, 5% NG, 23% TV and 45% any STI. In a repeated-measures analysis adjusted for study arm (immediate vs delayed implant insertion), those with PSA detected did not have an increased prevalence of any STI (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.04 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.21)), whereas prevalence decreased for each 1-year increase in age (PR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99)). Immediate implant insertion was not associated with increases in any STI in subsequent visits (PR=1.09 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.27)).

Conclusions

Although the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed STIs was high, the immediate initiation of a contraceptive implant was not associated with higher STI prevalence rates over 3 months.

Trial registration number

NCT01684358.

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