A Psychometric Evaluation of the Loss of Face Scale
Face and loss of face (LOF) are important social and clinical constructs in many cultures. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the LOF Scale in 4 samples of European Americans and Asian Americans with a total of 2,057 participants. We found LOF Scale scores to have high internal reliability across all samples. Confirmatory factor analyses comparing 1- and 2-factor models supported a 1-factor structure for both European and Asian Americans, albeit 4 items (Items 3, 13, 14, and 20) were found to be noninvariant across the 2 groups. Two error covariances between Items 2 and 3, and between Items 11 and 20 were both substantial and invariant across groups. Tests of latent mean differences revealed a mean LOF score that was significantly higher for Asian Americans than for European Americans. Finally, the LOF scores correlated with affective distress and self-construal equally for Asian Americans and European Americans, correlated with some factors in collective self-esteem for both groups, and correlated with acculturation for Asian Americans. These results supported the LOF Scale as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing the unidimensional concept of the LOF across cultures.