The Effects of Quality of Life and Ability to Perform Activities of Daily Living on Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older People Living in Publicly Managed Congregate Housing

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Abstract

Background:

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown.

Purpose:

This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI.

Methods:

This study applied a correlational study design. The participants were older people who met the study criteria and who lived in public housing in Wanhua District, Taipei City, Taiwan. One-on-one interviews were conducted to measure the cognitive abilities of the participants, and 299 valid samples were collected.

Results:

The prevalence of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing was 16.1%. The χ2 test was employed to evaluate the distribution of MCI prevalence and indicated that the group with higher MCI prevalence exhibited the following characteristics: older than 81 years; married; lived in public housing for more than 20 years; cohabiting; had a history of drinking; and exhibited severe memory regression, physical disabilities, psychological distress, and low QoL. The difference between the groups achieved statistical significance (p < .05). After performing logistical regression analysis to control demographic variables, we found that QoL and ADL were critical for predicting MCI.

Conclusions/Implications for Practice:

This study confirmed that QoL and ADL correlate significantly with MCI in older people. Maintaining an open and supportive community enables older people to maintain sufficient mental activity, which has been shown to reduce MCI. These findings may provide an important reference for policy makers, educators, researchers, and community practitioners in their development of service strategies for older people.

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