The integration of self-efficacy (SE) theory within a nurse-led telephone follow-up education program (NP-FEP) has not been extensively evaluated for patients with cardiovascular disease.Objectives:
The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an NP-FEP in improving SE (primary outcome) and achieving goals related to cardiovascular risk (secondary outcome) for patients with cardiovascular disease.Methods:
In June and July 2013, a total of 403 patients with cardiovascular disease in Shanghai were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Personalized end goals were established for improving cardiovascular risk for each patient. The control group received conventional follow-up education, whereas the intervention group was contacted by telephone 11 times over a 6-month period with staged goals developed based on SE theory. Self-efficacy scores and goals for reducing cardiovascular risk were assessed at baseline, at the end of the 6-month intervention, and 12 months after enrollment.Results:
The SE scores in both groups increased at 6 months and decreased slightly at 12 months. The baseline SE scores were similar between the groups (P > .05), but the average SE scores were increased more for the intervention group than for the control group at 6 (P < .05) and 12 (P < .05) months. In addition, the final goal achievement rates for the intervention group were significantly higher than for the control group (P < .05). The difference between the 2 groups was reflected by differences in cardiac disease risk factors defined by the World Health Organization.Conclusion:
The NP-FEP improved SE and facilitated achievement of goals related to risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease for at least 1 year.