Inhibition of Cyclosporine A or rapamycin on T lymphocyte counts and the influence on the immune responses of B lymphocytes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
In acquired immunity, T lymphocytes regulate the immune responses of B lymphocytes, including the IgM+ B lymphocyte counts and antibody production. In this paper, Cyclosporine A (CsA) and Rapamycin (RaPa) were used, and their inhibition on T lymphocytes and immune responses of B lymphocytes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were investigated. Flounder was injected with Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH), a mixture of KLH and CsA (KLH + CsA), or a mixture of KLH and RaPa (KLH + RaPa). Then, the proportions of T and IgM+ B lymphocytes (PT and PB) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were analysed by flow cytometry (FCM), total antibodies (TA) and KLH specific antibodies (KA) in serum were measured by ELISA, and expression of 9 immune-related genes in the spleen and kidneys were determined using q-PCR. On the other hand, the PBL culture was treated with Concanavalin A (ConA), a mixture of ConA and CsA, and a mixture of ConA and RaPa. Then the PT and PB were measured, and the cell proliferation was examined using the MTT method. The results showed that the PT peaked on the 5th day in the KLH group, KLH + CsA group and KLH + RaPa group. The maximum inhibition rates (MIR) of CsA and RaPa were 27.44% ± 0.50% and 21.37% ± 2.06%, respectively. The PB peaked at the 5th week, and the MIR of CsA and RaPa were 44.51% ± 1.36% and 33.3% ± 0.65%, respectively. The KA and TA peaked at the 5th week. The MIR of CsA and RaPa on TA were 40.31% ± 1.59% and 32.96% ± 2.21%, respectively, and were 27.77% ± 2.02% and 23.41% ± 1.08% for KA, respectively. Nine immune-related genes had significantly lower expression in the KLH + CsA group and KLH + RaPa group compared to the KLH group. The proliferation of the PBL culture was inhibited by CsA or RaPa, and the inhibition rate of CsA and RaPa for PT was 18.14% ± 1.08% and 17.88% ± 1.02%, respectively, and the inhibition rates for PB were 3.03% ± 0.57% and 2.95% ± 0.53%, respectively. The results demonstrated that T lymphocytes counts were inhibited by CsA and RaPa, followed by suppression of IgM+ B lymphocytes and antibody production, which suggests that T lymphocytes regulate the immune response of B lymphocytes in flounder.