Hospital Length of Stay Among Patients Receiving Intermittent Versus Prolonged Piperacillin/Tazobactam Infusion in the Intensive Care Units

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We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients following a hospital-wide initiative of prolonged piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) infusion.


Retrospective observational study of patients >18 years old who was hospitalized in the ICU receiving PIP/TAZ for >72 hours during the preimplementation (June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011) and postimplementation (July 7, 2011 to June 30, 2014) periods.


There were 124 and 429 patients who met inclusion criteria with average age of 54.3 and 56.9 years, and average duration of PIP/TAZ therapy was 6.1 ± 2.8 days and 5.9 ± 3.4 days in the pre- and postimplementation period, respectively. Intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (LOS) following initiation of PIP/TAZ were 8.0 ± 8.4 days versus 6.4 ± 6.8 days and 26.3 ± 22.8 days versus 20.4 ± 16.1 days among patients in the pre- and postimplementation periods, respectively. Compared to patients who received intermittent PIP/TAZ infusion, the adjusted difference in ICU and hospital LOS was 0.6 ± 0.8 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.9 to 2.1 days) and 5.6 ± 2.1 days (95% CI: 1.4 - 9.7 days) shorter among patients who received prolonged PIP/TAZ infusion. At hospital discharge, 19 (15.3%) intermittent infusion and 74 (17.2%) prolonged infusion recipients had died. In comparison to intermittent infusion recipients, the adjusted odds ratio for mortality was 1.17 (95% CI: 0.65-2.1) with prolonged infusion.


Our study demonstrated a reduction in hospital LOS with prolonged PIP/TAZ infusion among critically ill patients. Randomized trials are needed to further validate these findings.

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