3D power Doppler in the evaluation of abnormally invasive placenta

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Abstract

The anomalies in placental insertion and invasion, such as placenta previa and the various forms of abnormally invasive placenta, are today a rising obstetric pathology. Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography is the gold standard in the diagnosis of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP), but the important feto-maternal impact of this pathology suggests the opportunity to employ all the available diagnostic techniques, such as three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler. This technique allows acquiring multiplanar images on coronal, axial and sagittal planes and with a rotational technique, it permits visualizing the placenta-bladder interface more accurately. Consequently, it allows a better study of the degree of bladder invasion, which is information that has a great impact on the subsequent counseling and management. Thus, 3D power Doppler represents an important technique complementary to 2D ultrasound in the diagnosis of AIP. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the possible applications of this procedure, referring to the main literature data.

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