High quality and safe cardiac anesthesia is a prerequisite for success in cardiac care. Cardiac surgery has developed rapidly over recent years in China. Because of language barriers, the current status of cardiac anesthesia in China is not well known to Western countries. To assess practice patterns, volume, workforce, and training requirements of Chinese cardiovascular anesthesiologists, we surveyed 92 major cardiovascular centers in China regarding their anesthesia practice, monitoring techniques, resources, staffing, and work hours. We aim to provide a review of the history, new developments, and a current cross section of cardiac anesthesia practice patterns in China. The goal is to allow Western readers to understand the unique achievements and challenges in Chinese cardiovascular anesthesiology, thus promoting further communications with Chinese cardiovascular anesthesiologists.