Tear Cytokine Levels in Contact Lens Wearers With Acanthamoeba Keratitis
To determine differences in key tear film cytokines between mild and severe cases of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and control contact lens (CL) wearers.Methods:
This was a prospective study of CL wearers with AK attending Moorfields Eye Hospital and control CL wearers from the Institute of Optometry, London. Basal tear specimens were collected by 10-μL capillary tubes (BLAUBRAND intraMark, Wertheim, Germany), and tear protein levels were measured with a multiplex magnetic bead array (Luminex 100; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) for cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17E, IL-17F, IL-22, and interferon gamma and with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom) for CXCL2. Severe cases of AK were defined as having active infection for over 12 months and at least 1 severe inflammatory event.Results:
One hundred and thirty-two tear samples were collected from a total of 61 cases (15 severe and 46 mild–moderate) and 22 controls. IL-8, part of the Toll-like receptor 4 cytokine cascade, was found to be expressed at a detectable level more often in cases of AK than in control CL wearers (P = 0.003) and in higher concentrations in severe cases than in milder forms of the disease (z = −2.35). IL-22, part of the IL-10 family, and a proinflammatory Th17 cytokine, was detected more often in severe cases than in milder forms of AK (P < 0.02).Conclusions:
Profiling patients with AK during disease shows differences in cytokine levels between severe and milder disease that may inform clinical management. The Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-10/Th17 inflammatory pathways should be included in further investigations of this disease.