Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with secondary acute lymphosarcoma leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: A rare case report

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Abstract

Rationale:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, which may lead to blindness. CMV retinitis is not an uncommon infectious disease in patients with immune regulatory abnormalities, for example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, CMV retinitis in a patient with acute lymphosarcoma leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) phase is very rare.

Patient concerns:

A case of CMV retinitis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy as a part of ALL allogeneic HSCT is described including the pathogenesis, clinical signs, and therapy.

Diagnoses:

CMV retinitis.

Interventions:

Ganciclovir intravitreal injection at weekly intervals for 4 weeks.

Outcomes:

Patient's vision had improved and the load of CMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the aqueous humor declined. The CMV retinitis and perivascular of retina infiltration regressed.

Lessons:

We propose that the concentration of CMV DNA load in the aqueous humor could be useful in making the diagnosis and in selecting the optimal treatment in this kind of CMV retinitis.

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