Update on Finger-Application-Type Noninvasive Continuous Hemodynamic Monitors (CNAP and ccNexfin): Physical Principles, Validation, and Clinical Use
The CNAP HD Monitor (CNSystems, Graz, Austria) and the ccNexfin (The ClearSight System: Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, CA) are continuous, noninvasive blood pressure monitors using a finger-application device. These devices show a promising ability to allow for rapid detection of hemodynamic derangement when compared with oscillometry. The accuracy and precision of these devices as blood pressure monitors has been evaluated when compared with intra-arterial catheters. Additionally, they can be used to measure beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO). As CO monitors, they are capable of trending changes in CO when compared with a transpulmonary thermodilution monitor. Difficulty with use in critically ill and awake patients has been encountered because of altered microvascular physiology and patient movement. The principles of operation and clinical validation of these devices are presented. The clinicians who are interested in using these devices in their clinical setting should be aware of the relatively large bias and CIs in the hemodynamic measurements.