Epidemiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome associated with poor quality of life, substantial health-care resource utilization, and premature mortality. We summarize the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of HFpEF with a focus on community-based studies relevant to quantifying the population burden of HFpEF. Current data regarding the prevalence and incidence of HFpEF in the community as well as associated conditions and risk factors, risk of morbidity and mortality after diagnosis, and quality of life are presented. In the community, approximately 50% of patients with HF have HFpEF. Although the age-specific incidence of HF is decreasing, this trend is less dramatic for HFpEF than for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The risk of HFpEF increases sharply with age, but hypertension, obesity, and coronary artery disease are additional risk factors. After adjusting for age and other risk factors, the risk of HFpEF is fairly similar in men and women, whereas the risk of HFrEF is much lower in women. Multimorbidity is common in both types of HF, but slightly more severe in HFpEF. A majority of deaths in patients with HFpEF are cardiovascular, but the proportion of noncardiovascular deaths is higher in HFpEF than HFrEF.