Poorer immunologic responses to combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) have been reported among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants than among native Europeans. We studied whether differences in CD4+ cell recovery between French natives and SSA migrants starting first-line cART could be explained by differences in socioeconomic conditions, inflammatory marker levels, and other established determinants.Methods:
We compared 319 French natives and 175 SSA migrants (ANRS-COPANA cohort). Clinical, biological, and socioeconomic data (education, employment, income, and cohabiting partnership) were recorded at regular visits. A piecewise linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze CD4+ cell count kinetics on cART.Results:
Compared with French natives, SSA migrants were more frequently women, younger, less educated, living in more adverse conditions, and had more frequent symptoms of depression. The rate of CD4+ cell recovery during the first 4 months on cART was significantly slower in SSA migrants, despite a similar virologic response, but did not differ significantly thereafter. The mean CD4+ cell count rose from 251 cells/μl at baseline to 508 cells/μl at 36 months in migrants, and from 308 to 623 cells/μl in natives (additional mean gain of 58 cells/μl in natives). The difference persisted after adjustment for clinical, updated socioeconomic, and living conditions (−0.40√CD4+ cells/month, P = 0.04); 25-hydroxyvitamin D, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) levels were lower in SSA migrants, but only sTNFR1 contributed to the difference in CD4+ slope.Conclusion:
Initial CD4+ cell recovery on cART was slower among SSA migrants than among French natives. This difference was not explained by established clinical and biological determinants or by socioeconomic status.