Rivaroxaban Used in the Treatment Patients With Gynecologic Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: The Experience of Instituto Nacional de Câncer—Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Abstract

Introduction

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major complication of malignant diseases and is a frequent cause of death in patients with cancer. Managing anticoagulation in these patients is challenging because of the high risk of recurrent VTE and bleeding events. Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant that provides rapid onset of anticoagulation.

Objective

The aim of this study was to describe the complications of rivaroxaban and potentially associated factors in patients with gynecologic cancer and VTE.

Methods

This was an observational study in women with gynecological cancer who developed VTE and were treated with 15 and 20 mg rivaroxaban at Instituto Nacional de Câncer from July 2014 to July 2015.

Results

Forty-one patients were treated with rivaroxaban. Most patients were younger than 60 years and presented cervical cancer; 58.5% of women did not have complications, thus remaining at a dose of 20 mg/d. Because of complications, 12.2% had the dose reduced to 15 mg/d, 12.2% had the drug suspended, 7.3% had progressive worsening of the disease with suspension of anticoagulation, and 9.8% progressed to death because of progression of the disease.

Conclusions

Rivaroxaban has been documented as a low-cost, easily controlled option compared with standard therapy. Most participants in this study had no complications. However, it was not possible to assess associations with statistical significance. Further analytical studies with larger samples are required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this treatment in patients with gynecologic cancer.

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