Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Clinical and Pathological Analysis of 47 Patients Without Intrauterine Diethylstilbestrol Exposure

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical and pathological characteristics and to conduct prognosis analysis of patients who were diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (CCCUC) and without a history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

Methods

We performed a retrospective review of all the patients with CCCUC who were diagnosed and treated at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital between 1998 and 2014. Charts were reviewed for clinical and pathological characteristics, and prognosis analysis was conducted.

Results

A total of 47 patients were included. Median age was 52 years. No patient had a history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage distribution was 55.3% (n = 26) stage I, 40.4% (n = 19) stage II, 2.1% (n = 1) stage III, and 2.1% (n = 1) stage IV. Forty-two patients (89.4%) underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Pathological examination revealed deep cervical stromal invasion (greater than two thirds) in 20 patients (48.4%), pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis in 10 patients (23.8%), lymphovascular space involvement in 9 patients (21.4%), and ovarian metastasis in 1 patient (2.4%). Advanced tumor stage (IIB–IV), larger tumor size (>4 cm), and PLN metastasis had negative effects on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.05). Adjuvant radiation therapy alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy after radical surgery did not affect PFS or OS in patients with risk factors (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, and PLN status were prognostic factors for both PFS and OS in patients with CCCUC. The long-term effects of adjuvant radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be limited for CCCUC patients with risk factors. Future larger case series or clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

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