Stachydrine ameliorates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibiting NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways in rats
Cardiac hypertrophy (CH), as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, has become an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. However, progress in treatment remains sluggish in recent years. Therefore, compounds derived from non-toxic nature plants are urgently needed. Stachydrine (STA), which is isolated from Leonurus, has various activities, including resistance to cardiovascular disease, but little is known about its effect on CH or the mechanisms. We herein investigated the effect of STA on isoproterenol-induced CH and the underlying mechanisms. Treatment with STA significantly increased the ratios of heart weight/body weight, left ventricle weight/body weight and the cross-sectional areas of cardiomyocytes. In addition, STA significantly decreased the mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain. Furthermore, isoproterenol-induced fibrosis in rats receiving STA was significant attenuated, as evidenced by decreased ratio of fibrotic area/total area and decreased mRNA levels of collagens I and III. Given down-regulation of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IFN-1β, treatment with STA significantly reversed the expressions of pro-inflammatory induced by isoproterenol. Moreover, STA attenuated the oxidative stress level in serum of isoproterenol-induced CH rats, as shown by increased activity of superoxide dismutase and decreased malondialdehyde level. STA inhibited the expressions of phosphorylated IκBα, NF-κB p65, JAK2 and STAT3 in vivo. Thus, both NF-κB and JAK/STAT signalings played essential roles in mediating the anti-CH effect of STA. Collectively, STA has a potent protective effect on isoproterenol-induced CH, with therapeutic implication for CH.