Outcomes After Decompression of the Right Ventricle in Infants With Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum Are Associated With Degree of Tricuspid Regurgitation: Results From the Congenital Catheterization Research Collaborative
Outcomes after right ventricle (RV) decompression in infants with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum vary widely. Descriptions of outcomes are limited to small single-center studies.Methods and Results—
Neonates undergoing RV decompression for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum were included from 4 pediatric centers. Primary end point was reintervention post-RV decompression; secondary end points included circulation type at latest follow-up. Ninety-nine patients (71 with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and 28 with virtual atresia) underwent RV decompression at median 3 (25th–75th, 2–5) days of age. Seventy-one patients (72%) underwent at least 1 reintervention after decompression. Median duration of follow-up was 3 years (range, 1–10). Freedom from reintervention was 51% at 1 month and 23% at 3 years. In multivariable analysis, reintervention was associated with virtual atresia (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28–091; P=0.027), smaller RV length (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–0.99; P=0.027), and ≤mild tricuspid regurgitation (TR; HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.04–6.30; P<0.001). Patients undergoing surgical shunt or ductal stent were less likely to have virtual atresia (HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15–0.85; P=0.02) and more likely to have higher RV end-diastolic pressure (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00–1.15; P=0.057) and ≤mild TR (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.75–7.0; P<0.001). Number of reinterventions was associated with ≤mild TR (rate ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.23–2.87; P=0.0037). Multivariable analysis indicated that <2-ventricle circulation status was associated with ≤mild TR (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% CI, 5.3–65.2; P<0.001) and lower RV area (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72–0.91; P<0.001).Conclusions—
Patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum deemed suitable for RV decompression have a high reintervention burden although most achieve 2-ventricle circulation. TR ≤mild at baseline is strongly associated with reintervention and <2-ventricle circulation at medium-term follow-up. Degree of baseline TR may be an important marker of long-term outcomes in this population.