To assess whether the age of onset was associated with unique features or disease course in pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) or chronic pancreatitis (CP).Study design
Demographic and clinical information on children with ARP or CP was collected at INSPPIRE (INternational Study Group of Pediatric Pancreatitis: In Search for a CuRE) centers. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used to examine for differences between pediatric age groups (<6, 6-11, and ≥12 years).Results
Between September 2012 and March 2016, 342 children with ARP or CP were enrolled; 129 (38%) were <6 years of age at the time of first diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, 111 (32%) were 6-11 years of age, and 102 (30%) were ≥12 years of age. Early-onset disease was associated with mutations in cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) (P < .01), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) (P = .01), family history of acute pancreatitis (P = .02), family history of CP (P < .01), biliary cysts (P = .04), or chronic renal failure (P = .02). Later-onset disease was more commonly present with hypertriglyceridemia (P = .04), ulcerative colitis (P = .02), autoimmune diseases (P < .0001), or medication use (P < .01). Children with later-onset disease also were more likely to visit the emergency department (P < .05) or have diabetes (P < .01).Conclusions
Early-onset pancreatitis is associated strongly with PRSS1 or CTRC mutations and family history of pancreatitis. Children with later-onset disease are more likely to have nongenetic risk factors. Future studies are needed to investigate whether the disease course, response to therapy, or clinical outcomes differ relative to the timing of disease onset.