Conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants in acute myeloid leukemia

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AML is currently the first indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), as shown by international transplant registries. The conditioning regimens are classified as myeloablative conditioning, non-myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning. Targeted radioimmunotherapy such as anti-CD45 antibody have also been added to the conditioning regimen in an attempt to improve tumor cell kill. Refinement of standard regimens has led to a reduction of non-relapse mortality, also in the older age group over 60 or 70 years of age. Relapse post allo-HSCT remains an important issue, especially for patients who undergo transplant with residual or refractory disease. In these patients, pre- and post-transplant interventions need to be considered.

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