AbstractPurpose of review
The atheroprotective properties of HDL are supported by epidemiological and preclinical research. However, the results of interventional trials paradoxically indicate that drugs increasing HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) do not reduce coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Moreover, Mendelian randomization studies have shown no effect of HDL-C-modifying variants on CAD outcome. Thus, the protective effects of HDL particles are more governed by their functional status than their cholesterol content. In this context, any successful clinical exploitation of HDL will depend on the identification of HDL-related biomarkers, better than HDL-C level, for assessing cardiovascular risk and monitoring responses to treatment.Recent findings
Recent studies have enlightened the role of ecto-F1-ATPase as a cell surface receptor for apoA-I, the major apolipoprotein of HDL, involved in the important metabolic and vascular atheroprotective functions of HDL. In the light of these findings, the clinical relevance of ecto-F1-ATPase in humans has recently been supported by the identification of serum F1-ATPase inhibitor (IF1) as an independent determinant of HDL-C, CAD risk and cardiovascular mortality in CAD patients.Summary
Serum IF1 measurement might be used as a novel HDL-related biomarker to better stratify risk in high-risk populations or to determine pharmacotherapy.