Sepsis is a serious public health issue and the leading cause of death in critically ill patients in intensive care units. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a protein of regulating redox, as well as a modulator of inflammation and apoptosis. Our previous study reported that Trx-1 decreased endoplasmic reticulum-mediated inflammation involved in lung in a model of experimental sepsis. However, its effect on mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in spleen has not been reported. We studied whether Trx-1 could prevent spleen cells apoptosis in sepsis. In the present study, we showed that the apoptosis in spleen was decreased in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (Tg) mice compared with wild-type mice. Colony forming units in the peritoneal cavity and the level of procalcitonin in plasma were significantly decreased in Trx-1 Tg mice 12 h after CLP. The expressions of c-jun-N-terminal kinase, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were increased in spleen, which were suppressed in Trx-1 Tg mice. However, the decreased Bcl-2 expression in sepsis was recovered in Trx-1 Tg mice. Our results suggest that overexpression of Trx-1 provides protection against sepsis through suppressing mitochondria-induced apoptosis pathway in spleen. This study may provide a new target for clinical intervention, as well potential strategies for treatment of sepsis.