Aging and Sexual Differences of the Human Skull

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Abstract

Background:

The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected.

Objective:

To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach.

Methods:

Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i.e., <20 years, 20–50 years, >50 years). Structural changes were classified according to gender and age group.

Results:

Of the 241 skulls included, 192 were male skulls and 49 female. Sexual dimorphism and age-related peculiarities are described herein.

Conclusions:

The knowledge of the anatomy of the aging face, taking into consideration all the layers (skin, fat pads, muscles, and bones), as a whole, for the treatment of folds and shadows is vital for a better and more natural final aesthetic outcome.

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