Aging and Sexual Differences of the Human Skull

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The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected.


To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach.


Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i.e., <20 years, 20–50 years, >50 years). Structural changes were classified according to gender and age group.


Of the 241 skulls included, 192 were male skulls and 49 female. Sexual dimorphism and age-related peculiarities are described herein.


The knowledge of the anatomy of the aging face, taking into consideration all the layers (skin, fat pads, muscles, and bones), as a whole, for the treatment of folds and shadows is vital for a better and more natural final aesthetic outcome.

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