The effect of sodium hypochlorite concentration and irrigation needle extension on biofilm removal from a simulated root canal model
To investigate the effect of sodium hypochlorite concentration and needle extension on removal of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, sixty root canal models were 3D printed. Biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the canal for 10 days. Irrigation for 60s with 9 mL of either 5.25% or 2.5% NaOCl or water was performed using a needle inserted either 3 or 2 mm from the canal terminus and imaged using fluorescence microscopy and residual biofilm percentages were calculated using imaging software. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance and two-sample t-tests. A significance level of 0.05 was used throughout. Residual biofilm was less using 5.25% than with 2.5% NaOCl. Statistically significant biofilm removal was evident with the needle placed closer to the canal terminus. A greater reduction of available chlorine and pH was noted as the concentration increased. One-minute irrigation was not sufficient for complete biofilm removal.