Midterm Results of Low-Profile Stents to Treat Atherosclerotic Iliac Artery Disease

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Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of low-profile 4-F stents for the treatment of atherosclerotic iliac artery lesions. Methods: Between January 2009 and December 2015, 63 patients (mean age 69.3 years; 42 men) received low-profile stents (Astron Pulsar or Pulsar-18) at the discretion of the operator to treat iliac artery occlusive disease. The majority of patients (40, 63.5%) had critical limb ischemia; 36 of 82 lesions were total occlusions. All procedures were performed with 4-F equipment. Outcomes evaluated included mortality, patency (primary, assisted primary, and secondary), absence of target lesion revascularization (TLR), and limb salvage. Associations of patient and procedure variables with patency and TLR outcomes were sought with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Via a brachial (n=46/63) or femoral (n=17/63) access, 82 stents were successfully deployed to treat the 82 lesions, with <30% residual stenosis. The overall access-related complication rate was 1.6% (brachial artery occlusion). Mean duration of follow-up was 24.1±22.3 months (range 1–72), during which 3 patients died and 1 major amputation occurred at 10 months. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of primary patency was 76.9% (95% CI 70.2% to 83.6%); the assisted primary and secondary patency estimates were 79.3% (95% CI 73% to 85.6%) and 91% (95% CI 84.5% to 97.5%). The 4-year freedom from TLR estimate was 73.8% (95% CI 67.4% to 80.2%). On multivariate analysis, the only associations confirmed involved Rutherford category 5/6 with primary patency (hazard ratio [HR] 5.7, 95% CI 4.4 to 7, p=0.02) and assisted primary patency (HR 6.1, 95% CI 4.9 to 7.3, p=0.01). Conclusion: Use of a low-profile 4-F stent in atherosclerotic iliac lesions was safe and effective. At 4 years, the overall patency and the absence of TLR were good. Midterm outcomes were poor in patients with Rutherford category 5/6 ischemia. Finally, the use of stents with a ≥6-mm diameter and postdeployment balloon dilation are recommended in all cases.

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