Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe

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Abstract

Background.

Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Methods.

We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015. Information was collected on antibiotic use and hospitalization. Stool was tested for ESBL-E through combination disc diffusion. API20E identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on the positive samples followed by whole genome sequencing.

Results.

Stool was collected from 175/202 (86.6%) children. Median age was 11 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 9-12] years. Median time on ART was 4.6 years (IQR 2.4-6.4). ESBL-Es were found in 24/175 samples (13.7%); 50% of all ESBL-Es were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 100% to co-trimoxazole, 45.8% to chloramphenicol, 91.6% to ceftriaxone, 20.8% to gentamicin and 62.5% to ciprofloxacin. ESBL-Es variously encoded CTX-M, OXA, TEM and SHV enzymes. The odds of ESBL-E carriage were 8.5 times (95% CI 2.2-32.3) higher in those on ART for less than one year (versus longer) and 8.5 times (95% CI 1.1-32.3) higher in those recently hospitalized for a chest infection.

Conclusion.

We found a 13.7% prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in a population where ESBL-E carriage has not been described previously. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Africa merits further study, particularly given the high HIV prevalence and limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available.

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