Risks of Cardiovascular Adverse Events and Death in Patients with Previous Stroke Undergoing Emergency Noncardiac, Nonintracranial Surgery: The Importance of Operative Timing

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Abstract

Background:

The outcomes of emergent noncardiac, nonintracranial surgery in patients with previous stroke remain unknown.

Methods:

All emergency surgeries performed in Denmark (2005 to 2011) were analyzed according to time elapsed between previous ischemic stroke and surgery. The risks of 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs using adjusted logistic regression models in a priori defined groups (reference was no previous stroke). In patients undergoing surgery immediately (within 1 to 3 days) or early after stroke (within 4 to 14 days), propensity-score matching was performed.

Results:

Of 146,694 nonvascular surgeries (composing 98% of all emergency surgeries), 5.3% had previous stroke (mean age, 75 yr [SD = 13]; 53% women, 50% major orthopedic surgery). Antithrombotic treatment and atrial fibrillation were more frequent and general anesthesia less frequent in patients with previous stroke (all P < 0.001). Risks of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality were high for patients with stroke less than 3 months (20.7 and 16.4% events; OR = 4.71 [95% CI, 4.18 to 5.32] and 1.65 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.88]), and remained increased for stroke within 3 to 9 months (10.3 and 12.3%; OR = 1.93 [95% CI, 1.55 to 2.40] and 1.20 [95% CI, 0.98 to 1.47]) and stroke more than 9 months (8.8 and 11.7%; OR = 1.62 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.84] and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.34]) compared with no previous stroke (2.3 and 4.8% events). Major adverse cardiovascular events were significantly lower in 323 patients undergoing immediate surgery (21%) compared with 323 successfully propensity-matched early surgery patients (29%; P = 0.029).

Conclusions:

Adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality were greatly increased among patients with recent stroke. However, events were higher 4 to 14 days after stroke compared with 1 to 3 days after stroke.

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