Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (P < 0.05). In addition, we observed that administration of the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (P < 0.05). Suppression of BMP-2 decreased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 and activated MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (P < 0.05). The results showed that CT protects chondrocytes from LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response by regulating BMP-2 and thus blocking MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.