Association of outcomes and anti-Xa levels in the treatment of pediatric venous thromboembolism

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Abstract

Background

There are few data in the pediatric population evaluating the relationship between measured anti-Xa levels during enoxaparin therapy and thrombotic outcomes.

Objective

To determine whether there is a difference in outcomes in children who receive enoxaparin with mean anti-Xa levels between 0.45 and 0.79 unit/ml (low therapeutic range) versus between 0.80 and 1.05 unit/ml (high therapeutic range) throughout their course of their treatment.

Methods

We retrospectively identified subjects with uncomplicated venous thromboembolism treated with enoxaparin.

Results

Of 69 patients with any response to therapy, 48 (70%) had mean anti-Xa levels in the low therapeutic range and 21 (30%) had mean anti-Xa levels in the high therapeutic range. Of 20 patients with no documented response to therapy, 13 (65%) had mean anti-Xa levels in the low therapeutic range and 7 (35%) had mean anti-Xa levels in the high therapeutic range. Forty-eight (79%) of the 61 patients with low-range mean anti-Xa level had any response to therapy. Twenty-one (75%) of the 28 patients with high-range mean anti-Xa level had any response to therapy. Chi-square test (P = 0.080) and logistic regression (OR = 1.23, P = 0.70) demonstrated no significant association between mean anti-Xa range (lower vs. upper) and therapy response.

Conclusions

There was no statistically significant difference between low-range versus high-range mean anti-Xa levels and thrombus resolution. Empiric clinical practices of targeting anti-Xa levels in the higher therapeutic range to achieve better outcomes may not be warranted.

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