In vitroeffects of ItalianLavandula multifidaL. leaf extracts on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) leucocytes and SAF-1 cells
Lavandula multifida is very appreciated by pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In Italy is only found in Calabria and Sicily and, at present, urge its valorization due to its high extinction and genetic erosion risks. Possible applications of L. multifida extracts as immunostimulant in fish aquaculture were assayed by using gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) as a marine fish model, due to its importance in fish aquaculture. The in vitro effects of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts obtained from two Italian populations of L. multifida on head kidney leucocyte activities (viability, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and peroxidase content) were assessed. Furthermore, the possible cytotoxic effects of the extracts on SAF-1 cells and their bactericidal effects on three fish pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida) were also evaluated. All the assays were performed in comparison with leaf extracts obtained from a widely-distributed species as L. angustifolia. Results showed that water and ethanolic leaf extracts obtained from L. multifida enhanced innate immune activities of S. aurata HK leucocytes. Furthermore, SAF-1 cell viability was not affected significantly after being incubated with the extracts. These extracts did not exert any bactericidal activity on the pathogenic bacterial strains tested in the present study. Results obtained in the present work suggested the possibility of use such extracts in in vivo studies in order to corroborate the possibility of their use in aquaculture. Their use could prevent to improve fish defense against pathogenic infections through enhancement of the fish immune status.