Sertaconazole nitrate loaded nanovesicular systems for targeting skin fungal infection: In-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation
The aim of this study was to develop different vesicular systems for sertaconazole nitrate and evaluate the ability of targeting deep skin layers to treat dermal fungal infection. Therefore, different phospholipid based nanovesicles, namely liposomes, glycerosomes, transferosmes and ethosomes were prepared and in-vitro evaluated for morphology, entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and zeta potential value, followed by ex-vivo evaluation through skin penetration and permeation. The selected vesicular formula was incorporated into gel base system and assessed by ex-vivo permeation visualization study using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In-vivo study was performed to compare antifungal efficacy of STZL loaded vesicular gel with commercial cream (Dermofix®). All nanovesicles were unilamller and almost spherical in shape. Entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and zeta potential were dependent upon vesicle composition. Vesicular formulae promoted drug permeation compared to commercial cream where transferosomal system containing 3% soyphospholipid (SPC) and 0.15% sodium deoxychloate (SDC) exhibited highest flux (645 μg/cm2/h). The CLSM images confirmed the penetration of the developed probe-loaded tansferosomal system to viable epidermis layers with fluorescence intensity greater than unencapsulated probe. The in-vivo study revealed significant prevention effect in immunecompromised rat model. Furthermore, the antifungal activity with lowest histopathological changes was significantly observed in the developed STZL-loaded transferosomal gel compared to commercial cream using immunecompromised rat model with fungal skin infection.