Hypertension update, JNC8 and beyond
Hypertension is the most preventable major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The etiology of elevated blood pressure is a complex process involving the interaction of genetics, demographics, comorbid disorders, and environmental influences. Effective hypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JNC reports have served as a valuable source of guidelines, and JNC 8 is the most recently updated guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension. It includes modification of JNC 7 regarding the threshold for therapy, therapeutic goals, and medications or combinations of medications that differ in benefits for certain patient populations. However, JNC 8 generated a significant degree of controversy. This review will evaluate JNC 7 versus JNC 8 guidelines and discuss the most controversial aspects of JNC 8 through a therapeutic perspective. This review will also discuss the most recently available evidence that has an impact on the JNC 8 recommendations. Despite the nuance of clinical guidelines, blood pressure control rates remains suboptimal. We will explore potential reasons and solutions for this dilemma including pharmacogenomics, novel risk-stratification strategies, lifestyle interventions, and integrative care.