Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) and long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). More recently bronchoscopic treatments are emerging for COPD. Among them endobronchial valves (EBV) and endobronchial coils (EBC), next to endobronchial stents, sclerosing agents, targeted lung denervation and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray. In this review we aim to summarize the new emerging bronchoscopic treatments and their effect sizes compared with lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies.