Poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device: Preparation and examination of drug affinity
Polymer-ceramic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxyapatite were applied as sorption material in Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device. The presented device provides new possibilities for the examination of bisphosphonates affinity for bone and will be a helpful tool in evaluation of potential antiresorptive drugs suitability. A ceramic part of monoliths was prepared by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the reaction mixture or by using a soaking method (mineralization of HA on the PVA). The parameters of synthesis conditions were optimized to achieve a monolithic material having the appropriate dimensions after the soaking process enabling placing of the monolithic material inside the needle. Furthermore, the material must have had optimal dimensions after the re-soaking process to fit perfectly to the needle. Among the sixteen monolithic materials, eight of them were selected for further study, and then four of them were selected as a sorbent material for the MINE device. The material properties were examined on the basis of several parameters: swelling ratio, initial mass reversion and initial diameter reversion, mass growth due to the HA formation, and antiresorptive drug sorption. The MINE device might be then used as a tool for examination of interactions between bisphosphonate and bone. The simulated body fluid containing sodium risedronate (RSD) as a standard compound was passed through the MINE device. The obtained device allowed for sorption about 0.38 mg of RSD. The desorption process was carried out in five steps allowing insightful analysis. The MINE device turned out to be a helpful tool for determination of the bisphosphonates affinity to the ceramic part of sorbent (hydroxyapatite) and to assess the usefulness of them as antiresorptive drugs in the future.