Biogenic Aldehydes as Therapeutic Targets for Cardiovascular Disease
Aldehydes are continuously formed in biological systems through enzyme-dependent and spontaneous oxidation of lipids, glucose, and primary amines. These highly reactive, biogenic electrophiles can become toxic via covalent modification of proteins, lipids and DNA. Thus, agents that scavenge aldehydes through conjugation have therapeutic value for a number of major cardiovascular diseases. Several commonly-prescribed drugs (e.g., hydralazine) have been shown to have potent aldehyde-conjugating properties which may contribute to their beneficial effects. Herein, we briefly describe the major sources and toxicities of biogenic aldehydes in cardiovascular system, and provide an overview of drugs that are known to have aldehyde-conjugating effects. Some compounds of phytochemical origin, and histidyl-dipeptides with emerging therapeutic value in this area are also discussed.