Role of astakine1 in regulating transglutaminase activity
Transglutaminase (TGase) has been implicated in maintaining the undifferentiated stage of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. TGase activity has been reported to be regulated by astakine1, an essential crayfish cytokine for inducing new hemocyte synthesis in hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Here, the role of astakine1 in TGase activity regulation and clotting protein (CP) cross-linking was characterized. A reduction in TGase activity was observed by the addition of purified astakine1 in vitro for both endogenous crayfish TGase and a commercial purified guinea pig liver TGase. As a result, we observed that astakine1 inhibits TGase enzyme activity and acts as a non-competitive inhibitor for the TGase enzyme. Additionally, the clotting reaction was impaired in the presence of astakine1. A decrease in TGase-mediated crosslinking of ε(γ-glutamyl)-lysine bonds was also observed in the presence of astakine1. In conclusion, this study shows that astakine1 acts as an inhibitor of TGase activity and that it also affects CP cross-linking during crayfish hematopoiesis.