Glucocorticoids Retain Bipotent Fibroblast Progenitors during Alveolar Septation in Mice
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments that foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation. Other investigators and we have identified platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-expressing fibroblast subpopulations that are alternatively skewed toward myofibroblast or lipofibroblast phenotypes. In this study, we administered either the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex) or the antagonist mifepristone to mice during the first postnatal week and evaluated their effects on cellular proliferation and adoption of α-smooth muscle actin and lipid droplets (markers of the myofibroblast and lipofibroblast phenotypes, respectively). We observed that Dex increased the relative abundance of fibroblasts with progenitor characteristics, i.e., containing both α-smooth muscle actin and lipid droplets, uncoupling protein-1 (a marker of brown and beige adipocytes), delta-like ligand-1, and stem cell antigen-1. Dex enhanced signaling through the Smad1/5 pathway, which increased uncoupling protein-1 in a lung fibroblast progenitor cell line. We conclude that glucocorticoid receptor manipulation can sustain fibroblast plasticity, and posit that targeting downstream glucocorticoid responsive pathways could steer fibroblast progenitors along more desirable regenerative pathways.