We evaluated the occurrence of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) and 30-day postoperative outcomes. Patients undergoing cervical/first rib resection surgery were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2013). Thoracic outlet syndrome types were then examined. Propensity score matching was performed to account for potential confounders; 1180 patients were explored during the study period, 1007 (85.3%) were of the neurogenic TOS (NTOS), 32 (2.7%) patients had arterial TOS (ATOS), and 141 (12.0%) patients had venous TOS (VTOS). Patients with ATOS were significantly older (median age [interquartile range, IQR]—NTOS: 34 [25-44], ATOS: 49.5 [42.5-57], VTOS: 34 [23-43]; P < .001). Median operating time was significantly longer for patients with ATOS. Median in-hospital stay was also longer for patients with ATOS (median length of in-hospital stay [LOS; IQR]—NTOS: 2 [1-4]; ATOS: 6 [3-7]; and VTOS: 5 [2-7] days; P < .001). Patients with VTOS showed twice longer LOS when compared to NTOS after matching. Presentation and treatment of TOS have been studied extensively at highly experienced centers.