Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that possesses immunomodulatory properties and has been demonstrated to potentially influence inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis and activity. Epidemiologic data have associated vitamin D deficiency with an increased risk of IBD, hospitalizations, surgery, and loss of response to biologic therapy. Conversely, IBD itself can lead to vitamin D deficiency. This bidirectional relationship between vitamin D and IBD suggests the need for monitoring and repletion of vitamin D, as needed, in the IBD patient. This review discusses the role of vitamin D in IBD and provides practical guidance on vitamin D repletion.