Where are we heading with fluid responsiveness research?

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Fluid responsiveness prediction is not always possible with well established dynamic approaches such as passive leg raising or pulse pressure variation in the ICU. The purpose of the present review is to summarize emerging alternative techniques for fluid responsiveness prediction in adult critically ill patients and discuss their methodology and applicability. In addition, the future role of fluid responsiveness prediction in the ICU is discussed.

Recent findings

Several new dynamic techniques have been investigated and they all contribute to the applicability of fluid responsiveness techniques. Although increasing the applicability, most of the emerging techniques still rely on ventilator setting changes in patients that are fully or almost fully adapted to the ventilator or require reliable flow monitoring, which prevents broad applicability. Yet, the mini/micro fluid challenges and the use of extrasystolic preload changes have the potential of being more applicable but all reviewed methods need further validation and methodological refinement.

Summary

Emerging techniques are encouraging for broader applicability of fluid responsiveness prediction. Still, the clinical impact of correctly predicting fluid responsiveness remains to be investigated in the critically ill and the research community should have a clear aim of moving toward that type of studies.

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