An Airway Risk Assessment Score for Unplanned Extubation in Intensive Care Pediatric Patients*

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Abstract

Objective:

As a result of a workshop to identify common causes of unplanned extubation, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta developed a scoring tool (Risk Assessment Score) to stratify patients into groups of low, moderate, high, and extreme risk. This tool could be used to institute appropriate monitoring or interventions for patients with high risks of unplanned extubation to enhance safety. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the Risk Assessment Score will correlate with the occurrence rate of unplanned extubation in pediatric patients.

Design:

Retrospective review of 2,811 patients at five ICUs conducted between December 2012 and July 2014.

Setting:

Five ICUs at two freestanding pediatric hospitals within a large children’s healthcare system in the United States.

Patients:

All intubated pediatric patients.

Interventions:

Data of intubations and Risk Assessment Score were collected. Extubation outcomes and severity levels were compared across demographic groups and with the maximum Risk Assessment Score of each intubation.

Measurements and Main Results:

Out of 4,566 intubations, 244 were unplanned extubations (5.3%). The occurrence rates of unplanned extubations in those less than 1, 1–6, and more than 6 years old were 6.7%, 3.6%, and 2.7%, respectively, corresponding to a rate of 0.59, 0.53, and 0.58 unplanned extubation every 100 ventilator days. The occurrence rates were 13.6% for patients weighing less than 1 kg (0.59 unplanned extubation per 100 ventilation days) and 3.8% for patients weighing greater than or equal to 1 kg (0.58 unplanned extubation per 100 ventilation days). For intubations with maximum risk score falling in risk categories of low, moderate, high, and extreme, the occurrence rates were 4.7%, 7.7%, 12.0%, and 8.3%, respectively, which corresponded to rates of 0.54, 0.62, 0.95, and 0.92 unplanned extubation per 100 ventilator days.

Conclusions:

Higher Risk Assessment Scores are associated with occurrence rates of unplanned extubation.

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