A systematic review of the keystone design perforator island flap in lower extremity defects

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Abstract

Background:

The keystone design perforator island flap is useful for the reconstruction of lower extremity defects. We performed a systematic review with the objective of identifying complication rates associated with using the keystone design perforator island flap to treat such defects.

Methods:

The MEDLINE, PubMed Central, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from January 2003 to August 2016 for articles describing keystone design perforator island flaps in lower extremities. The study selection was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement.

Results:

Nine articles that involved a total of 282 keystone design perforator island flaps satisfied the inclusion criteria. In these articles, the most common cause of lower extremity defects was oncologic resection (89.0%). Most such defects were in the middle third of the lower leg (32.7%). Complications occurred in 9.6% of patients; these complications included partial flap loss (1.1%) and complete flap loss (0.7%).

Conclusion:

Given its high success rate and low technical complexity, if applicable, the keystone design perforator island flap should be the preferred approach for lower extremity reconstruction.

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