Long-term Outcome of 4 Patients With Transcobalamin Deficiency Caused by 2 Novel TCN2 Mutations

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Abstract

Cobalamin (vitamin B12 [Cbl]) is an essential cofactor for many biochemical pathways. Transcobalamin (TC) is required to internalize Cbl into the cells through membrane receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cbl is then processed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria by complementation factors leading to its active metabolites; methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl-cobalamin. Deficiency of TC results in an elevation in methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Patients usually present with macrocytic anemia, pancytopenia, failure to thrive, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurological dysfunction. In this study, we report 4 patients from 2 unrelated families, with confirmed diagnosis of TC deficiency. Patients initially had a typical presentation of TC deficiency: severe diarrhea and vomiting, recurrent infections, stomatitis, macrocytic anemia, and neutropenia. Interestingly one of the patients was diagnosed at 3 months of age and developed ataxic gait related to cerebellar atrophy at the age of 14 months. His elder affected sibling was diagnosed at 5 months of age was completely normal. Two sibs, diagnosed at 2 months of age and immediately after birth, had autism spectrum disorder. Molecular investigations showed 2 novel mutations in TCN2 gene. Patients were treated and stayed stable on weekly injection of Cbl. In conclusion, TC deficiency has a wide heterogeneity in clinical phenotype, genotype, laboratory, and radiologic findings. Early detection of the disease and early initiation of aggressive parenteral treatment is probably associated with better prognosis and disease control.

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