The Effect of Intraoperative Graft Coverage With Preserved Remnant Tissue on the Results of the Pivot-Shift Test After Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Quantitative Evaluations With an Electromagnetic Sensor System

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Abstract

Background:

Remnant tissue preservation may be important in improving graft healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but it has yet to be established whether remnant tissue preservation improves the control of pivot-shift laxity.

Hypothesis:

The amount of ACL graft coverage with preserved remnant tissue improves the control of pivot-shift laxity, as qualitatively determined with an electromagnetic device.

Study Design:

Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods:

The 3-dimensional kinematics were evaluated intraoperatively using an electromagnetic sensor system in 38 patients at the time of anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction with remnant tissue preservation and again at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. The magnitude of the peak coupled anterior tibial translation (pCAT) and the maximal acceleration of posterior translation (APT) during the pivot-shift test were evaluated. The degree of graft coverage by remnant tissue was determined arthroscopically at the end of surgery, which was evaluated quantitatively using a scoring system (0-9 points). The relationship between the values during the pivot-shift test and preoperative and intraoperative factors were assessed.

Results:

The mean (±SD) side-to-side difference of the pCAT (ΔpCAT) was significantly (P < .0001) improved from 14.0 ± 5.0 mm to 2.6 ± 1.1 mm. Also, the mean side-to-side difference of the APT (ΔAPT) was significantly (P < .0001) improved from 525.6 ± 99.7 mm/s2 to 32.9 ± 23.6 mm/s2. The mean initial graft coverage score was 5.3 ± 2.6. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the degree of initial graft coverage was significantly correlated with the ΔpCAT (r = −0.517, P = .0007) and ΔAPT (r = −0.532, P = .0005). The status of the reconstructed graft at second-look arthroscopic surgery showed no significant correlations with the degree of initial graft coverage or the results of the pivot-shift test.

Conclusion:

The present study demonstrated that the preservation of ACL remnant tissue in anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction appears to improve the control of pivot-shift laxity at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively, as measured by an electromagnetic device. This improvement was significantly affected by the degree of intraoperative graft coverage with preserved remnant tissue.

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