Diagnostic accuracy of a hybrid approach of instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve using high-dose intracoronary adenosine to characterize intermediate coronary lesions: Results of the PALS (Practical Assessment of Lesion Severity) prospective study
We sought to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and high-dose intracoronary adenosine fractional flow reserve (IC-FFR) compared with classical intravenous adenosine fractional flow reserve (IV-FFR) to assess coronary stenosis severity. The usefulness of two hybrid strategies combining iFR and high-dose IC-FFR was also evaluated. Background: Physiological assessment of intermediate coronary stenoses to guide revascularization is currently recommended. Methods: Consecutive real-world patients with angiographically intermediate coronary stenosis (40–80% diameter stenosis) were prospectively included in the PALS (Practical Assessment of Lesion Severity) study. In every target lesion iFR, high-dose IC-FFR and IV-FFR were systematically measured to assess the accuracy of an hybrid sequential approach combining iFR and IC-FFR. Results: A total of 106 patients with 121 intermediate coronary lesions were analyzed. Both, iFR and IC-FFR showed a significant correlation with IV-FFR (iFR: r = 0.60, 95%CI 0.48–0.70; IC-FFR: r = 0.88; 95%CI: 0.83–0.92). High-dose IC-FFR provided lower FFR values than IV-FFR (0.81 ± 0.08 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09, P = 0.25). Using a receiver-operating-characteristic curve an optimal iFR threshold of 0.91 for the screening test was identified. A sequential test strategy (initial iFR followed by IC-FFR only in lesions with iFR <0.91) yielded an excellent diagnostic accuracy (96.7%, 95%CI 96.7–99.1%) with a sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predicted values of 100%, 94.7%, 91.8%, and 100%, respectively. A hybrid approach using the previously described iFR gray zone (0.85–0.94) also provided an excellent diagnostic accuracy (95%, 95%CI: 89.5–98.1%). Conclusions: In patients with intermediate coronary lesions a hybrid strategy by using a sequential approach of iFR and high-dose IC-FFR, provided a very good diagnostic performance to identify physiologically significant stenoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.