Current considerations and controversies surrounding the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are reviewed.Summary.
Patients diagnosed with CKD require a unique clinical approach to prevent medication toxicities and ensure appropriate management of disease-progressing comorbidities, and they require attention to commonly occurring complications that may affect disease control and impact quality of life, including anemia and CKD–bone–mineral disorder (CKD-BMD). Many CKD-related comorbidities put patients at increased cardiovascular risk, including diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Although there are clinical guidelines to help clinicians manage CKD and its related complications and comorbidities, there are many clinical controversies surrounding optimal treatment. Recent literature and clinical studies bring into question multiple controversies regarding the optimal management approach to the patient living with CKD, including the appropriateness of iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) for the treatment of anemia and vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of CKD-BMD. While available guidelines can provide clinicians with guidance regarding the appropriate management of the patient with CKD, they often differ dramatically in the optimal approach to the management of comorbidities and complications. For a patient with CKD, the pharmacist has an important role to ensure optimal outcomes, by appropriately managing comorbid conditions and optimizing drug dosing.Conclusion.
Multiple controversies regarding the optimal management of patients with CKD, including the appropriateness of iron and ESAs for treatment of anemia and vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of CKD-BMD. Available guidelines differ dramatically in the optimal approach to the management of comorbidities and complications.