Four decades of ocular renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems (1977–2017)
This review offers a contemporary history of the renin-angiotensin (RAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) systems with emphasis on how these complex systems affect the eye. It describes the types of communication (cross-talk) between the two systems and evaluates their potential role in the development of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and uveitis. In addition to detailing the important physiological actions of components of the RAS and KKS, possibilities are suggested for new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of common ocular diseases. Historical notes indicate the major events in this research area, marking four decades from the first publication on the discovery of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme in the eye to the present time.