Safety and Efficacy of Warfarin Therapy in Kawasaki Disease

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Abstract

Objective

To describe the safety and efficacy of warfarin for patients with Kawasaki disease and giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs, ≥8 mm). Giant aneurysms are managed with combined anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies, heightening risk of bleeding complications.

Study design

We reviewed the time in therapeutic range; percentage of international normalization ratios (INRs) in range (%); bleeding events, clotting events; INRs ≥6; INRs ≥5 and <6; and INRs <1.5.

Results

In 9 patients (5 male), median age 14.4 years (range 7.1–22.8 years), INR testing was prescribed weekly to monthly and was done by home monitor (n = 5) or laboratory (n = 3) or combined (1). Median length of warfarin therapy was 7.2 years (2.3–13.3 years). Goal INR was 2.0–3.0 (n = 6) or 2.5–3.5 (n = 3), based on CAA size and history of CAA thrombosis. All patients were treated with aspirin; 1 was on dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin. The median time in therapeutic range was 59% (37%-85%), and median percentage of INRs in range was 68% (52%-87%). INR >6 occurred in 3 patients (4 events); INRs ≥5 <6 in 7 patients (12 events); and INR <1.5 in 5 patients (28 events). The incidence of major bleeding events and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events were each 4.3 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.9–12.6). New asymptomatic coronary thrombosis was detected by imaging in 2 patients.

Conclusions

Bleeding and clotting complications are common in patients with Kawasaki disease on warfarin and aspirin, with INRs in range only two-thirds of the time. Future studies should evaluate the use of direct oral anticoagulants in children as an alternative to warfarin.

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