Ginger exerts protective effects on obesity and its complications. Our objectives here are to identify bioactive compounds that inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in vitro, elucidate the anti-obesity effect of gingerenone A (GA) in diet-induced obesity (DIO), and investigate whether GA affects adipose tissue inflammation (ATI).Methods and results
Oil red O staining showed that GA had the most potent inhibitory effect on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells among ginger components tested at a single concentration (40 μM). Consistent with in vitro data, GA attenuates DIO by reducing fat mass in mice. This was accompanied by a modulation of fatty acid metabolism via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, GA suppressed ATI by inhibiting macrophage recruitment and downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines.Conclusion
These results suggest that GA may be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and its complications by suppressing adipose expansion and inflammation.